Macular holes often begin gradually. The severity of symptoms will depend on the size of the hole and its location on the retina.
Macular hole symptoms can include the following:
- Slight distortion or blurriness in straight-ahead vision
- Straight lines or objects look bent or wavy
- Increased difficulty with reading and performing other routine tasks with the affected eye
- Loss of most central and detailed vision.
In the advanced stage, a person can develop a detached retina, which is a sight-threatening condition that should receive immediate medical attention.
These possible symptoms are not always a sure sign of a macular hole. Other conditions also can cause these symptoms. If you have any possible symptoms, you should see your healthcare provider so that the problem can be diagnosed and treated as quickly as possible.
In order to make a macular hole diagnosis, your doctor will ask you a number of questions about your medical history and will perform a comprehensive eye exam that includes dilation.
Although some macular holes can seal themselves and require no treatment, surgery is necessary in many cases to help improve vision. This surgery is called a vitrectomy.
Vision improvement varies from person to person following macular hole surgery. People who have had a macular hole for less than six months have a better chance of recovering vision than those who have had one for a longer period.
If a macular hole exists in one of your eyes, there is a 10 to 15 percent chance that one will develop in the other eye over your lifetime. Your doctor can discuss this with you.
Possible risks of surgery include but not are not limited to:
- Retinal detachment.